|Therapeutic Area||Formulary Choices||Cost for 28|
(unless otherwise stated)
|Rationale for decision / comments|
|7.4.2 Drugs for urinary frequency, enuresis, and incontinence
Related guidance: NICE Clinical Guideline CG111 (2010): Bedwetting in under 19s
NICE Clinical Guideline CG171 (2013): The management of urinary incontinence in women
|Before initiating treatment a thorough investigation of the underlying cause of incontinence should be carried out and drug treatments should be reviewed 4 weeks after starting. If there is no or suboptimal improvement or intolerable adverse effects change the dose, or try an alternative antimuscarinic drug, and review again 4 weeks later.
Thereafter, treatments should be reviewed annually.
Pelvic floor muscle training. NICE recommends a trial of supervised pelvic floor muscle training of at least 3 months' duration as first-line treatment to women with stress or mixed UI, comprising at least 8 contractions performed 3 times per day.
NHS choices guide to pelvic floor exercises
|2.5mg tablets: £1.26 (56)|
5mg tablets: £1.91 (56)
|As per NICE guidance immediate release Oxybutynin is recommended as the first line antimuscarinic for managing urinary incontinence as a result of detrusor instability on the basis of its good efficacy and low cost. Not recommended in frail, elderly women.|
|1mg tablets: £1.95 (56)|
2mg tablets: £2.01 (56)
|Research has shown that concordance after 3 years is less than 10% regardless of class of drug use with little to differentiate treatment options (Shamliyan T, et al. Benefits and harms of pharmacologic treatment for urinary incontinence in women. A systemic review. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156:861-74)
NICE advises that some adverse effects are indications that treatment is having effect and that they may not see full benefits for 4 weeks.
If first treatment for OAB or mixed UI is not effective or not tolerated, offer another drug with the lowest acquisition cost.
Aim to avoid additional antimuscarinic drugs particularly in elderly and patients with dementia due to risk of delirium. See muscarinic load below.
|7.5mg tablets: £25.48 (28)
15mg tablets: £25.48 (28)
|Second-line:||Oxybutynin MR||5mg m/r tablets: £13.77 (30)
10mg m/r tablets: £27.54 (30)
|Tolterodine MR as Neditol XL®|
or Mariosea XL®
|2mg m/r capsules: £11.60 (28)
4mg m/r capsules: £12.89 (28)
2mg m/r capsules: £11.59 (28)
4mg m/r capsules: £12.88 (28)
|Trospium (immediate release)||20mg tablets:£5.06 (60)|
|Trospium MR as Regurin XL®||60mg tablets: £23.05 (28)|
|15mg tablets: £18.00 (56)
30mg capsules: £24.45 (28)
|Third-line||Solifenacin||5mg tablets: £27.62 (30)|
10mg tablets: £35.91 ( 30)
|Evidence indicated that higher dose of solifenacin is more likely to cause side effects than tolterodine MR or Trospium MR
Once daily dosage only
|Duloxetine||20mg capsules: £2.94 (28)|
40mg capsules" £4.89 (28)
|May be offered as second‑line therapy if women prefer pharmacological to surgical treatment or are not suitable for surgical treatment. If duloxetine is prescribed, counsel women about its adverse effects|
|Fesoterodine||4mg m/r tablets: £25.78 (28)|
8mg m/r tablets: £25.78 (28)
|Mirabegron||25mg tablets: £29.00 (28)|
50mg tablets: £29.00 (28)
|To use as an option where antimuscarinic drugs are contra-indicated or clinically ineffective or side-effects are unacceptable, before surgery or botox therapy
Lower dose used where hepatic or renal impairment exists.
Mirabegron is now contraindicated in patients with severe uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥180 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥110 mm Hg, or both).Blood pressure should be measured before starting treatment and monitored regularly during treatment, especially in patients with hypertension. MHRA alert October 2015
Do not combine treatment of mirabegron and another OAB drug
|Non oral therapy||Oxybutinin Patches||Oxybutinin 3.9mg/24 hours: £27.20 (8)||Oxybutinin patches remain an option at any stage for those unable to tolerate oral therapy or for patients with swallowing problems to avoid the need for unlicensed liquid formulations.
Patches are applied twice weekly to clean, dry, unbroken skin on abdomen, hips or buttocks.
|For the use of desmopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis, please refer to section 6.5.2 Posterior pituitary hormones and antagonists|